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Inter Organizational Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Bury Organizational Systems - Essay Example ers has developed enormously since the underlying startup by the United States branch of Defe...

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Inter Organizational Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Bury Organizational Systems - Essay Example ers has developed enormously since the underlying startup by the United States branch of Defense in 1969, development in Internet has extended making new manners by which individuals connect and work together. There is a ton of data possible on the web; the data accessible on sites is utilized to serve various crowds, some of it might be useful for research while other is simple feelings. In this manner, it is upon the watcher to decide how helpful the materials they are looking for on the web are to them. Individuals have a characteristic preference for wonderful articles; in the virtual world the engineers of sites understand this inalienable human shortcoming or quality, they use it build up a usable and an alluring site. This site http://www.ladpss.org/will be utilized in assessing the engaging quality and ease of use of a site. An alluring site is one that has an appropriate design; it is liberated from superfluous promotions, offers multilingual pages, offering elective adaptations of study in arrangements, for example, edges or messages among different highlights (Buchanan, 2004). The regular assessment method for engaging quality incorporate the accompanying, First, canny utilization of shading, this ought to be reflected in shading adjusting, whereby, pastel hues ought to have low immersion levels. Also, evenness and style this suggests utilization of bended shapes which draws in more than square shapes. Third, structure, reliable design and utilization of developing field - layers this invigorates enthusiasm for the client, furthermore, foundation picture with low immersed shading offers profundity to the closer view. Selection of media to stands out whereby sound and video gives an energizing sensation and increment readiness. At long last, utilizing structure of unordinary or unique stirs the users’ creative mind (Sutcliffe, 2002). An easy to use site is characterized on client communication concerning the simplicity of finding the site through utilization of web search tools, the time the client takes to discover the data

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Examining The Ethics Of Undercover Reporting Media Essay

Looking at The Ethics Of Undercover Reporting Media Essay In a day wherein we are burning through a large number of worker hours revealing double dealing, we just can't delude. In what manner would newspapers be able to battle for genuineness and trustworthiness when they themselves are under legitimate in getting a story? Benjamin Bradlee, previous official editorial manager of the Washington Post. A month ago, two prominent open figures in Britain were the subject of newspaper sting activities which have caused across the board contention and discussion. This exposition will examine the activities of the columnist or paper proofreader for each situation, from both a deontological and consequentialist outlook, which will serve to represent the moral complexities encompassing the entire idea of covert revealing. Duchess of York plots to offer access to Prince Andrew, Mazher Mahmood, News of the World, 23 May 2010 On 23rd May 2010, the News of the World revealed that the Duchess of York, Sarah Ferguson, had been tricked into tolerating a $40,000 ( £27,000) money initial installment from a covert columnist acting like a Sheik. The papers Investigations Editor Mazher Mahmood had offered the Duchess an aggregate of  £500,000 to be acquainted with Fergusons ex Prince Andrew, who is a British exchange agent. The gathering where the store was given over to Ferguson and subtleties of the pay off were talked about was caught on tape, and this video was posted on the News of the World site nearby the article. The News of the World may guarantee they have done Britain a decent assistance in uncovering Fergusons illegal business bargains, yet actually, they have not introduced any confirmation that she had been taking part in pay off and defilement before the News of the World entered the fight and organized this detailed sting activity. They guarantee that they have verification that she had just traded out by acquainting two global head honchos with Prince Andrew, which brought about rewarding business bargains for which she increased a commission. Would it not have been sufficient to give an account of this proof which had been given by their nearby imperial partner who blew the whistle on her? They state they have secured all the subtleties of her exchanges with these head honchos, and data about the new organization Ferguson set up a month ago to deal with her illegal business, however have not introduced any of these subtleties in the article, or in any of the horde of articles distri buted about the Ferguson undertaking since the recordings were posted on the site. Truly, the News of the World did without a doubt uncover that Sarah Ferguson was arranged to a degenerate arrangement with a universal representative. In any case, who is to state that she would not have been associated with any unlawful dealings had the News of the World not set her up thusly? In April, another of Mahmoods covert sting activities carried an untimely end to the vocation of snooker champion John Higgins when Mahmood recorded him in a lodging in the Ukraine consenting to fix a lose in a forthcoming snooker coordinate in return for à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã¢ ¬300,000. He had been set up by a gathering of covert columnists acting like agents. Higgins has since guaranteed that he had been threatened into the arrangement without wanting to, yet has been suspended from snooker pending an examination, maybe inconclusively. Mahmood claims that the choice to set Higgins up depended on a tip-off from a games insider that Higgins was taking part in coordinate fixing. Be that as it may, no subtleties or proof was introduced in the article to back up the cases. This is simply one more late case of the sort of covert revealing that Mahmood is taking part in for the News of the World, where a dramatist scoop, as a rule including a superstar or open figure, is gotten on camera, causes a concise media craze, however is immediately overlooked when the following sting activity hits the features. Mahmood, who has been acting like the phony Sheik for covert scoops since 1984, cases to have uncovered crimes in his sting activities which have prompted at any rate 250 criminal feelings. His camouflage has hoodwinked pedophiles, swindlers and medication pushers the piece of whom could be regarded as being in the open enthusiasm just as philandering government pastors and famous people with recreational medication propensities, whose accounts might be of prurient enthusiasm to the general population, however are more likely than not in the open intrigue. The inspirations driving the News of the Worlds fixation on covert scoops are basic: duplicity can frequently be the snappiest and most effortless approach to get a story; the columnist has command over the situation that will in the end up in the paper, so basically they can make the title text before the occurrence has even occurred; and mystery film (sound accounts, video, and grainy or pixilated photos) sensationalize the story considerably further and make for incredible sight and sound substance for the web. The man expected to carry sound judgment to the FA, Ian Gallagher, Mail on Sunday, 16 May 2010 In another covert exposã © a month ago, the executive of the Football Association in England, Lord Triesman, was subtly taped guaranteeing that Spain and Russia were plotting to pay off officials in the forthcoming World Cup in South Africa. The chronicle was made by Triesmans previous associate Melissa Jacobs during a lunch meeting. Jacobs continued, with the assistance of superstar marketing specialist Mark Clifford, to offer the tapes to the Mail on Sunday for a revealed  £75,000, who ran the story on the first page on sixteenth May. While it must be noticed that the individual who made the account was not a columnist, however a partner of Triesmans, comparative standards around the morals of furtive chronicle and covert examination procedures are at issue here (leaving aside the morals of checkbook news coverage). Be that as it may, there is one vital contrast between this article and the covert sting activity articles composed by Mahmood referenced above, in that the situation was not arranged ahead of time by the paper. It appears to me, from the subtleties introduced in the article, that Jacobs went to the lunch meeting with the aim of getting taped proof of their issue to offer to the paper, and the discussion about the World Cup pay-offs emerged obscure ahead of time to her. While she provoked him during the trade for more data, she didn't prompt the subject of discussion, nor did she steer the discussion a specific way. This is exhibited in the accompanying transcript from the tape, which is cited in the article: Master Triesman: Spain are searching for help from the Russians to help pay off the arbitrators in the World Cup, their votes may then change to Russia. Now, Miss Jacobs asks: Would Russia help them with that? Ruler Triesman: Oh, I figure Russia will cut arrangements. Miss Jacobs: Why will Russia help? Are Russia in the World Cup? Ruler Triesman: No theyre not. Miss Jacobs: Oh no theyre not, theyve got nothing to lose? Ruler Triesman: Absolutely nothing at all to lose. Precisely. Since the article was distributed, Lord Triesman has surrendered as executive of the FA, yet expressed that he had been a casualty of capture and his remarks about the trick were never proposed to be paid attention to. Fifas morals group is exploring the claims, and in the event that it is demonstrated that they were situated in truth, the Mail on Sundays choice to print the story will be vindicated (however this is looking progressively far-fetched). The article was met with across the board ridicule in Britain, in all likelihood on the grounds that the embarrassment genuinely risked Englands odds of tying down their offer to have the 2018 World Cup. Be that as it may, the reasons given by most pundits were that the strategies utilized by the Mail on Sunday to get data for the article were grimy and dishonest. Consequentialist examination As per the consequentialists, the closures must legitimize the methods all together for an activity to be considered ethically worthy. The ethically right activity is what realizes the most elevated conceivable absolute total of utility(Wolff, p.49). It could be contended that in endeavoring to uncover Sarah Fergusons degenerate exercises, the News of the World were acting in the open enthusiasm, freeing the universe of a degenerate demonstration and in this manner carrying the best measure of joy to the best number of individuals. On the off chance that perusers truly accepted that the writer was acting to forestall the event of insidiousness, agony, abhorrence or despondency to the gathering whose intrigue is thought of, which as per Bentham, (The rule of Utility, cited in Singer, p.307) ought to be the fundamental reason for any game-plan, it could be contended that he was on the whole correct to take on the appearance of a Sheik so as to uncover Fergusons illegal business bargain s. So also, if the fundamental inspiration of the Mail on Sunday was to forestall defilement and match fixing during the World Cup, at that point the paper acted in the correct manner as per consequentialists. In any case, as I have clarified, it is profoundly questionable that these were the fundamental inspirations of the News of the World or the Mail on Sunday, as I would contend that they were progressively keen on printing shocking stories that would catch open eye and sell a bigger number of papers than a definitive end. While the most grounded contention against lies has been forward by Kant and the deontologists (see beneath), utilitarians were additionally unequivocally against deception and duplicity, in view of the mischief done by deceiving specific people, and the inclination of bogus explanations to lessen the shared certainty that men should have in every others attestations (Sidgwick, Issues for Utilitarians, in Singer, p.316). There is another moral issue raised by the Sarah Ferguson exposã © article that would bear some significance with a consequentialist, and that is the utilization of mysterious sources. Tabloids like the News of the World are notable for paying huge totals of cash to all around associated sources, and the data took care of to them by their nearby imperial partner likely could be genuine. It is broadly perceived among columnists and editors the same th

Monday, August 10, 2020

Does GPA Matter When Applying for a Job

Does GPA Matter When Applying for a Job A Grade Point Average or a GPA is the accumulation of your average grades for your entire degree, typically in college or university. It is calculated based on a 4 point grading scale, with 4 being the highest achievement and 0 being the lowest achievement.For a student, his or her GPA is probably their most feared acronym. It seems like an easy and quick way for employers and graduate schools to form an impression about you.You might also think it makes the difference between an employer considering your application versus just throwing it in the waste bin. Once you begin your first job, your GPA can be a factor in your starting salary.However, it is quite confusing whether you GPA really does matter when you apply to a job. Every company and every industry treats your GPA differently. Some put extreme emphasis on your GPA, while others focus more on your work experience. © Shutterstock | leungchopanThis article discusses why GPA is important and the careers wherein GPA typically matters. On the other hand, this article also highlights why GPA is not important and the careers where GPA usually does not matter.GPA MATTERSReasons Why GPA MattersCareer Changes. If you were thinking of making a career shift, like joining a different industry or field, you would have to have a high GPA. Decision-makers need to have some kind of proof or evidence that you can survive in their organization, even without the necessary and relevant experience as other applicants would have.Impressive Credentials. Remember that in college or university, a good GPA indicates that you have been accepted to honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa, are part of the dean’s list, or received other recognitions and awards. All these are impressive credentials when included in your curriculum vitae and can be very remarkable when you apply to particular jobs.Limited Job Histories. If you are a fresh graduate or have limited internship experience or would like a career shift (as discussed previously), you would probably need a high GPA. Employers would want to see whether you take responsibility seriously and whether you can perform tasks well. Recruitment managers can peruse through your schoolwork results as evidence of this. Typically, a GPA of 3.0 or higher indicates that you had ownership over your studies and are committed to working hard. Measurement of Non-Academic Matters. Many recruiting managers and decision-makers who did very well in their undergraduate degrees view GPAs an indicator that a job candidate can deal with stress and pressure, can learn very quickly, and can succeed. Moreover, by earning a college or university degree, a student has to exert 4 to 6 years of work prior to receiving their degree. Hence, those students who have high GPAs have shown that they are hardworking, conscientious, organized, and tenacious. Such a relationship betwee n high GPAs and high performance have been proven by research, indicating that educational credentials, which include GPA, matters in the job market.Lower perceived hiring risk. Moreover, businesses would like to minimize the risk in their organizations. Thus, when they hire a candidate who has a high GPA, it becomes less risky for them. They can safely assume that the candidate who has good grades is a better bet than one who has a low GPA. Moreover, in college or university, students have required classes that they are not familiar with or interested in.Therefore, the GPA can indicate if the student can learn a lot of information in such a short period. Thus, if you have good grades, employers can assume also that you can learn quickly and apply concepts. A business would always want an employee who is in an unfamiliar environment to be able to get past the learning curve very fast.Pursuance of Further Education. Although you might think you are already finished with academics onc e you graduate, it might be a different case in the future when you would want to pursue further studies or get a completely different degree. In addition, there are some companies, who would like you to get a master’s degree if you want to get a leadership or management position. Because schools would ask for your transcript of records from previous schools you have attended, a low GPA could be challenging when you want to advance your education.According to a U.S. News and World Report, keeping a high GPA is crucial to those who want to attend top graduate schools such as Harvard medical school, Stanford business school, or Yale law, for example. The admissions of Yale law, in particular, will review your college courses and academic performance. It has been said that the median GPA to enter Yale Law for class 2017 was 3.91.Recommendations from Professors. Keep in mind that other good things come along when you have a good GPA. If you do well in school, your professors would be more than willing to give you recommendations or references to the jobs you are applying to. References and recommendations, notably, are not the first things that recruiters see. They usually come in at the latter part of the job application process. However, these recommendations could mean your acceptance into or rejection from a post you applied to.Careers Where GPA MattersEducation. If you would like to teach others, it would make sense that you would have had to perform well in school. How can a person who barely passed Physics be able to teach Physics (as an example)? At any rate, the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation recommends that teachers can only be certified if they have a 3.0 GPA or higher. Many states from the United States of America have actually adopted this recommendation.Health. If you want to become a physical therapist or a medical doctor, your GPA is very significant. This is expected because taking care of people’s health always is a hig h-pressure situation. Organizations involved in health would want to know you are up to the task. This is particularly important when you are applying for medical school after undergraduate.If you currently have a low GPA and would still want to pursue a career in the field of health, watch this video on how to overcome a low GPA: Law. In law, GPA is important, but it can vary throughout a lawyer’s career. Highly ranked and large law firms depend heavily on GPAs from law school to see who is interviewed or not. As previously discussed, if you are coming in fresh from college or university and want to apply to law school and you want to apply to a big name university or an Ivy League school, you would perhaps need to have a very high GPA.GPA DOES NOT MATTERReasons Why GPA Does Not MatterGrade Inflation. Recruiters recognize that grade inflation could be a factor whenever a student has a high GPA. Grade inflation is the practice of giving high grades for outputs that would usually g et lower grades. Hence, a higher GPA does not necessarily mean a student has done well in his or her school life. Actually, according to Teachers College Record, 43-percent of letter grades given are As. Recruiters would know from speaking with you whether or not you are an intelligent sort.Importance of Networking. Even if you have a high GPA but if you have no connections in the field of your choice, getting a job could be difficult for you. However, if you have an unimpressive GPA but can demonstrate good networking skills (showing genuineness of course and no brownnosing), it can get you ahead. This is why it is crucial to network and to stay in touch with people who might support you in finding a job in the long run.[slideshare id=23575024doc=the5secretsofnetworking-130627085206-phpapp02w=640h=330]Insufficient Measurement of Performance. It is a popular argument that the GPA is an insufficient measure of performance in a position. Hence, it is unfair to use them in hiring decis ions. Most employers know the imperfectness of the GPA as a measurement. There are many people who had have had high GPAs that delivered average outputs, while many people with lackluster GPAs excelled in their careers.Moreover, an applicant with a higher GPA does not always get the job. Case in point, a student with a 3.2 GPA can beat an applicant with a 3.9 GPA if the student who had a lower GPA were working 30 hours every week to get through school and at the same time was part of the student council. On the other hand, if the student with a 3.9 GPA had no life outside of school, that could be a red flag for the recruiter that he or she is not holistic. Recruiters are always searching for people who are multi-faceted and can handle many responsibilities.Although it was mentioned previously that a high GPA matters if you are pursuing graduate studies, the case can be quite different if you want to pursue an MBA or a Master of Business Administration degree. Even though your GPA du ring undergraduate studies will form part of your application, they are not as significant as the skills that you can show. Case in point, the qualities that the Harvard Business School is looking for are analytical skills, leadership, and community engagement. Although good analytical skills imply a good GPA, the other qualities can be established through jobs, volunteer work, and personal accomplishments outside of school.This is how you get into Harvard Business School. Limited Access to Transcripts by Employers. If you are fretting over employers seeing your low GPA, you do not need to worry too much. Employers actually have limited access to your transcripts. For example, if you went to school in New York and moved to Washington D.C. for a job, your employer will not ask you to get your transcripts and then send it to them cross-country, just so that they can quickly look at it for a short 5 minutes.Precedence of Other Factors. Your GPA cannot make or break your job application because employers would consider other factors, such as your work experience, your educational background, and your skills. It is the combination of these that a recruitment manager would be able to make an intelligent decision whether or not you are a good fit with their organization and with the position.At the end of it all, employers would hire someone who can get the job done. No boss wants to micromanage you when they could be focusing on their own work. People say that time is money. So remember, employers would rather pick someone with experience rather than someone with a high GPA. Hence, if you are a new graduate, make sure to beef up your internships and volunteer work.Careers Where GPA Does Not MatterBusiness. Business can actually still be included in the heading of “Careers Where GPA Does Matter.” However, its emphasis is much less than the others included in that category. In the field of business, experience counts much more than your GPA. This is particularly r elevant the further along you are in your career.Communications, Journalism, and Media. Although your GPA is considered as an aspect on whether you can enter communications, journalism, or media, recruiting managers are mainly searching for persons who are self-starters, motivated, competent, and sharp. Moreover, just because you do well with the books does not mean you can do well in the field, where most communications, journalism, and media graduates go to first and foremost.Engineering, Mathematics, Science, and Technology. Although it might be expected that these fields are looking for high GPA requirements, experience is also weighted heavily. However, recruiters note that while GPA can make a difference in a job application, they do consider that students in these fields would tend to have lower GPAs but good internships. Moreover, majors of these fields usually have lower GPAs across the board, so students in these courses need not fret. Actually, based on studies, the 5 maj ors who have the lowest GPAs in college are enrolled in biology, chemistry, economics, and math.Start-Up Firms. For smaller companies and/or start-ups, they usually do not care about GPA. If it is good, great â€" if it not, they do not mind. The important thing with start-up firms are the ideas and innovations you can offer and whether or not you have the drive to push forward.CONCLUSIONOverall, after all the discussions, does GPA really matter? Actually, it depends on the industry and the company you would like to join. Moreover, whatever status your GPA may be, the experts suggest to simply be passionate about your studies and your other involvements, as recruitment managers will look at the complete picture.So, be strategic in how you spend your time. Do not take every opportunity that you see your way. If you find that your grades are being affected by your extracurricular activities, try to cut back or manage your time better. Ultimately, while a high GPA can open the door of o pportunities for you, it is simply a foundation for other real-world experiences that you can use in the workplace.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The History Of The United States Is Marred With Instances

The history of the United States is marred with instances of racial injustice and discrimination. It was out this sordid history rose Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the African-American Civil Rights Movement. An eloquent King used his right to free speech and to peaceful assembly to bring light to the oppressive system of injustice, racism and discrimination affecting people of color. King and the civil rights movement may have brought about several changes and needed awakening, however, many of the problems still exist. This essay will examine how the system of racial injustice affects the treatment of African-Americans and Latinos as it relates to policing, sentencing and voting. Dr. King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail and Opal Tometi’s†¦show more content†¦I swiped my MetroCard and was making my way through the turnstile when I was accosted by three white New York Police Department (NYPD) officers. I was questioned about my whereto and my reason for having a student MetroCard. I guess I was too black to be going to school! Nevertheless, these instances of police profiling are neither new nor was it unique to me. It was the same type of victimization that resulted in the murder (not death) of Eric Gardner in Staten Island in 2014. Gardner like myself was about his own business when he was confronted by the said NYPD officers on â€Å"suspicion† of peddling. What ensued was a 19 seconds-long multi-officer chokehold while the dying father of 6 screams â€Å"I can’t breathe!†. Furthermore, how can we ever forget the police-murder of Tamir Rice. The 12-year-old black boy was playing with a toy gun in a swing at the park when he was gunned down by a white police officer. No questions asked; no calls made to put away the toy, Tamir was killed like a vicious adult serial killer. King in his letter described similar actions of â€Å"hate-filled† officers brutalizing and killing peaceful protestors with impunity. These are just a few examples that reveal the nasty vitriolic underbelly of an institution set against a race. It exposes the institutionalized degrading attitude towards the African-American community and especially the black male. It would appear as if the black man cannot existShow MoreRelatedHistory of Civil War882 Words   |  3 PagesUnfortunately, our modern society has been marred with war and strife over its eventful lifespan. A civil disagreement, when accompanied by mass offenses, often ends with deadly war. Throughout history, many nations have been unable to solve their personal grievances with one another in a diplomatic manner. In many instances are solves through protest, boycotts and other contentious means. However, in some instances, society elects the worst possible alternative, which is often war. In retrospectRead MoreGovernment is the Problem, Not the Solution Essay1011 Words   |  5 Pagesproblem. Over time history has been able to back up what Reagan once asserted. 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Marketing Plan. Brain Juice - 5221 Words

Brain Juice: Captivating Creativity and Rejuvenating the Brain Executive Summary BrainJuice, the singular product offering of Austin, Texas based AlphaWave Labs, came onto the market with very little promotion or marketing. Even after its entry into the market, the product has had little push from the firm itself to bolster sales or retain customers. The product is strong, as it is an all-natural alternative to prescription medication or energy drinks designed to help with focus. However, the strategy with which it has been marketed has almost failed to exist, necessitating an overhaul of the approach to increase revenues and secure enduring clientele. With promotional strategies amongst college campuses, more diverse customer†¦show more content†¦Thus, listed beliefs like â€Å"We believe America is on too many pharmaceuticals, most of which mask symptoms,† will be reworked to promote all-natural products, but not while judging the medicinal intake of others. The beliefs should focus more on BrainJuice, in asserting things li ke â€Å"We believe in the wholesome approach to treating attention difficulties with safe, all-natural products.† Moreover, the core principles of the company are all questions that the firm and the employees can ask internally to ensure quality and ethical standards. These core principles cover the areas of integrity, health, service, humility and play. The overarching idea that the company is responsible to the customer and to its investors in terms of success will remain relevant, even with a marketing plan in place, as the need to find a healthy medium between science, customer service and employee satisfaction cannot be understated. However, the focus on making it fun and playful needs to be replaced by a notion of being fulfilling or satisfying, as opposed to fun. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom Free Essays

string(69) " and a high specificity \(to reduce the number of false positives\)\." Introduction Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom with approximately 35,000 new cases diagnosed each year. 1 in 16 men and 1 in 20 women will develop colorectal cancer at some point in their lives. It is also the second most common cause of cancer death, with just over 16,000 (approximately 9,000 men and 7,000 women) deaths per year (ONS, 2010) Incidence rates for colorectal cancer increased by 28 per cent for men and 11 per cent for women between 1971 and 2007. We will write a custom essay sample on Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom or any similar topic only for you Order Now Rates peaked at 57 per 100,000 in men in 1999 and 38 per 100,000 women in 1992. In the ten year period from 1998 to 2007, incidence rates for men and women have remained relatively stable (ONS 2010). Being overweight, having an inactive lifestyle and a low fibre diet can increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Eating red and processed meat, and insufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables, smoking and drinking excess alcohol are contributing factors. People with Crohn’s disease in the colon, ulcerative colitis, polyps in the colon or a family history of colorectal cancer may also be at an increased risk (Department of Health, 2000). More than four out of every five new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed in people aged 60 and over, with most cases presenting in the 70-79 age group in men and in the 75 and over age group in women (ONS, 2010). Survival from cancers of the colon and rectum has doubled in 30 years. For colon cancer, five-year survival was 50% for men and 51% for women diagnosed in 2001-2006 and followed up to 2007. Five-year survival for those diagnosed in 1971-1975 and followed up to 1995 was 22 per cent for men and 23 per cent for women (Rachet et al 2009). Differences in survival rates are based on how early, or at what ‘stage’, a patient presents for treatment. This ‘staging’ is a method (first developed in 1932) of evaluating the progress of the cancer in a patient. The classification considers the extent to which the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Once established, the best course of treatment is then decided. There are currently for categories: Dukes Stage A: The tumour penetrates into the mucosa of the bowel wall but no further Dukes Stage B: The tumour penetrates into, but not through the muscularis propria (the muscular layer) of the bowel wall. Dukes Stage C: The tumour penetrates into, but not through the muscularis propria of the bowel wall; there is pathologic evidence of colon cancer in the lymph nodes. C2: tumour penetrates into and through the muscularis propria of the bowel wall; there is pathologic evidence of colon cancer in the lymph nodes. Dukes Stage D: The tumour, which has spread beyond the confines of the lymph nodes (to organs such as the liver, lung or bone). Five year survival rates according to the Dukes’ stage of classification are: Dukes’ Stage A 85–95%, B 60–80%, C 30–60%, D less than 10%. These significant differences in survival rates were the basis for the introduction of a national screening programme for bowel cancer (Rachet et al 2009). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England began in July 2006, as part of the NHS National Cancer Plan (2000). Patients aged between 60-69 were initially offered screening every two years and people 70 and over could request it via their GP. The criteria has since changed (from January 2010) with screening now offered to those aged 70-75 years. The objective of bowel screening is to detect bowel cancer at an early stage and get these identified patients into an appropriate treatment pathway. The screening programme can also detect polyps, which, although are not cancers they may develop into cancers over time. They can easily be removed which reduces the risk of bowel cancer developing. This essay outlines the process of the UK bowel screening programme and from this provides a critical analysis of the test, performance and cost-effectiveness leading to a broader discussion considering whether to implement the screening programme in relation to UK NSC criteria. Description and critical analysis of the evidence about the test performance (15 marks) Screening is defined by Raffle Gray (2007) as; ‘The systematic application of a test, or inquiry, to identify individuals at sufficient risk of a specific disorder to warrant further investigation or direct preventive action, amongst persons who have not sought medical attention on account of symptoms of that disorder.’ There is a distinct difference between screening and case finding (e.g. NHS Health Check) – In clinical practice, patients approach healthcare professionals to ask for medical advice and help, in contrast with screening programmes, where professionals actively encourage people to undergo an investigation on the basis that it may benefit them. The performance of a screening programme is based on its ‘sensitivity’ and ‘specificity’. The sensitivity of a screening test is the percentage of the screened population that has the disease and tests positive. For instance, a sensitivity of 70% means that for every ten participants with the disease, seven will test positive and the other three will be false negatives. A test with poor sensitivity results in a high percentage of the population with the disease escaping detection. These people will be falsely reassured and could delay presenting important symptoms. The specificity of a test is the percentage of the screened population that is disease free and also tests negative. For instance, a specificity of 80% means that eight out of ten people who do not have the disease will have a negative result. Two out of ten will have a false positive result and require further assessment before the possibility of disease can be eliminated. A test with poor specificity will have an important effect for the individual, including increased anxiety and unnecessary clinical follow up. The ideal screening test would have a high sensitivity (to reduce the number of false negatives) and a high specificity (to reduce the number of false positives). You read "Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom" in category "Essay examples" It is usually difficult to achieve this as there is a trade off between the two measures; limiting the criteria for one results in a decrease in the other. Another key feature of a screening test is the predictive value for which there are two key aspects. The positive predictive value (PPV) of a test is the percentage of people who test positive who have the disease. The negative predictive value is the percentage of those who test negative who are disease free. The predictive value is influenced by both the sensitivity and specificity of the test, as well as the prevalence of the condition being screened for. In the UK the screening test used for the bowel screening programme is the ’faecal occult blood test’ (FOBT). In terms of operational delivery there are approximately 20 Hubs across the country responsible for coordinating the screening programme, each Hub sends out letters of invitation to the eligible population, explaining about bowel cancer screening.Standard practice ensures that within a week of receiving a letter a FOBT kit will be sent to patients. The kits are used by the patient, samples taken and returned to the Hub, who then send normal results to individuals, and inform GPs via a standards letter. For positive tests, the Hub contacts the individual directly, and an appointment is them made for the patient to have further investigations (colonoscopy) with the commissioned provider of colonoscopy services. The test and the framework for its operational delivery are based on a number of large scale trials which were undertaken to assess whether FOB testing of asymptomatic people could be useful in detecting individuals with early bowel cancer the largest trial conducted in Nottingham. The trials and the subsequent UK pilots (2008) found: uptake of approximately 60%, subsequent pilots returned a lower uptake which decreased with deprivation sensitivity was approximately 60% for cancer and 80% for adenomas biannual testing was as effective as annual testing screening of asymptomatic 55-75-year-olds reduced mortality from bowel cancer by 16% overall, or by 25% in those 60% of individuals who return an FOBT there was no reduction in all-cause mortality from FOB screening. These results meant that FOBT can detect 60% of all colon cancers. Alternatively, this also means that 40% are not routinely detected. This lower sensitivity rate is a trade off based on the fact that FOBT screening is non-invasive, easily performed without the need for bowel preparation, and can be performed on transported specimens and of low cost. A higher sensitivity rate could be achieved through once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in prevention of colorectal cancer but uptake, patient acceptability and cost would be a barrier to population roll-out. Description and critical analysis of the evidence about the cost-effectiveness (15 marks) There are a number of research publications that compare specific models of bowel screening through the application of different these will be described, but from a public health perspective, this essay will also consider the wider opportunity cost in relation to bowel screening. Agreement relating to how cost-effective an intervention is depends on what the intervention is being compared against. For instance, a starting point in the evaluation of the UK pilot for Bowel Screening Cost-effectiveness (2003) states ‘Analysis found that the cost-effectiveness of a national programme compared well with other forms of cancer screening such as breast and cervical cancer screening.’ This statement is all about comparison with associated interventions that are deemed reasonable and safe with a generally fair return on investment – this is more about acceptable levels of investment producing acceptable levels of return compared to similar interventions of the same type rather than considering whether the programme can be delivered more efficiently or could the resource be allocated in a different way to achieve the desired results. The issue of whether the programme could be delivered more cost effectively has been reviewed in a number of publications (Allison et al. 2006. Rozen et al. 2000. Levin et al 1997). These comparisons have, in particular, considered the merits of; FOBT alone, flexible sigmoidoscopy and FOBT combined, and one-off colonoscopy with cost-effectiveness more often defined as the cost per cancer death prevented. Of all the screening tests, FOBT alone prevents fewer cancer deaths than the other interventions, but the addition of a flexible sigmoidoscopy to the FOBT increases the rate of cancer prevention. One-off colonoscopy has the greatest impact on colorectal cancer mortality. Although purported to be the most cost effective the outcomes are all based on clinical outcome alone but when considering cost FOBT returns better broader population results (in terms of patient acceptability and absolute cost to deliver) than any other of the interventions outlined. One of the most popular measures of cost effectiveness is considered through estimating the lifetime NHS costs and potential health benefits (defined as cost per QALY – quality-adjusted life-years). For bowel screening this equates to comparing the population not offered screening but treated according to current practice compared with a sample of the population who are offered screening as per the protocol used in the pilot study. The cost per QALY is the additional costs of screening, after allowing for treatment cost savings, and the gain in survival and quality of life. The problem with QALYs has always been the question of what is the upper limit on what society is prepared to pay for health gains.The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) provides some limited information about upper limits in this context. It has been suggested that ?30,000 per QALY might represent an acceptable threshold (NICE, 2008). Studies (Young et al, 2005. Lieberman, 2005. Khandker RZ, 2000) have returned a cost per QALY for bowel screening of between ?2,000 to ?3,000 which is well within the acceptable cost guidance offered through NICE but this does not mean that it is the more cost effective or efficient way of delivering the service. Raffle Gray (2007) touch on the issue of broader public health view and the influence of single issue groups, they outlined that; ‘If information for policy making is to serve the health needs of the public to best effect, then it must enable policy makers to keep a sense of perspective and context. Doing this requires policy questions that are concerned with whole programmes of care, not just the single issue being considered.’ If we consider this in the context of a UK bowel screening programme costing ?50 million per year can we justify its delivery on the associated reduction in mortality of up to 16%On face value, it seems we can (e.g. economic analysis and QALY returns etc) – but that is assuming 60% uptake. PCTs in the West Midlands are currently delivering the programme at between 28% and 42% uptake. As public health policy makers at what point do we consider the low uptake at sustained high cost as a reasonable return on investment There may be a greater return on investment if the ?50 million was invested in broader public health programmes targeted at reducing the population risks by changing behaviour (e.g. smoking cessation, diet, exercise). Taking this even further, could we reinvest the total ?50 million in another, unrelated, public health issue such as falls prevention programmes and tackle the risk factors associated with bowel cancer through legislation and regulation (e.g. increased taxation of tobacco or introducing a more challenging approach to price per unit for alcohol) In the long term, this may have more effect on a population effect on bowel cancer mortality at a lower cost. Description and analysis of the ethical issues associated with implementing this screening programme including accessibility, equity, the balance of harm and good and informed choice (15 marks) The benefits of bowel screening include a modest reduction in colorectal cancer mortality and a possible reduction in cancer incidence through the detection and removal of colorectal adenomas. These benefits need to balanced against the potential harm of the programme. One of these identified harms is the psycho-social consequences of receiving a false-positive result or a false-negative result, the possibility of over diagnosis (leading to unnecessary investigations or treatment) and the complications associated with treatment. Another key possible harm relates to the possibility of bowel perforation for those patients who have with a positive FOBT and require further investigation. The UK National Bowel Cancer Screening evaluation (2003) suggested a perforation rate of 1 in 1500 colonoscopies. This compares well with other bowel screening programmes in Australia and France which have returned a rate of 0.96 per 1000 procedures . Following a diagnosis of perforation, most patients (over 90%) require surgery, and a significant number (30%) require colostomy or ileostomy. From a health inequalities viewpoint there are a number of issues relating to accessibility and equity that are cause for concern. The first of these is the issues of uptake in the context of deprivation. Data for 2004-2008 shows us that there is a 11% of higher incidence rate of colon cancer for males in the most deprived population compared with the least deprived population (ONS 2008). This can be compared with uptake of screening which has demonstrated that males and younger age groups have lower uptake rates (Weller et al, 2007). In the long term this pattern has the potential to further increase inequalities in health. There is also strong evidence that suggests certain ethnic sub-groups have lower participation rates of bowel screening than the general population (Robb et al, 2008; Szczepura et al, 2008). The reasons for these differences are complex ranging from health beliefs, misunderstanding and cultural attitudes. This defined lack of uptake by ethnic group is not evident in all screening programmes, for example, South Asian women are significantly less likely to undertake bowel screening compared to breast screening (29% compared to 49%) (Price et al. 2010). This suggests more research needs to be undertaken to try and understand the key factors involved. Literacy can also be linked to deprivation and ethnicity and is a critical factor in participation in colorectal cancer screening. As with many screening programmes a great deal of resource has been allocated to producing information and materials for the bowel cancer screening programmes – but we know that health literacy varies a great deal in the population (Von Wagner et al, 2009), and many patients will have limited comprehension of the material provided. Equity of access to diagnostic services is also a possible issue to manage. For two of the hospitals participating in the UK bowel screening pilot, there were significant differences between waiting times for colonoscopy for screened and symptomatic patients. For example, in Scotland the average waiting times for pilot patients was between 2 and 7 weeks, whereas for symptomatic patients they rose from around 10 weeks to between 16 and 20 weeks within the first year of the Pilot (Scottish Executive Health department 2006). Description of how to implement programme quality assurance and an assessment of the practical issues with implementation (15 marks) There are a number of frameworks for assessing and assuring the quality of healthcare service. Examples include Deming’s 14 principles of management and Donabedian’s seven components of quality. Raffle and Gray build in these two models and advocate six key points in applying quality assurance to screening. These are; Defining the objectives of the programme in a way that encapsulates what a ‘good’ screening programme will look like. Devise ways of measuring quality that will ensure these objectives are met. Set standards for each measurement; this is a subjectively chosen level that you will want the programme to achieve. Give responsibility to the local programmes for monitoring, how well they are doing in meeting the standards, and for working to improve quality in meeting those standards. Collate information about performance against standards and publications nationally for all the local programmes Provide support mechanisms for overseeing quality and for assisting local programmes with training and quality improvement. One way of doing this is by creating regional quality assurance teams. From personal experience, working with breast screening a cervical screening programmes, the need for clear standards and an overarching review process (the support mechanism) is essential. A ‘deep dive’ approach to some of the key performance indicators is also very useful. For example, if the target for local uptake is 60% a PCT, with the help of public health team, should approach this in terms of ensuring this uptake is achieved within the hardest to reach populations. In terms of the practical issues of implementation issues such as ease of completing the kit can be an important factor in determining uptake (The UK CRC Screening Pilot Evaluation Team, 2003). Uptake can also be greatly affected by simple mistakes in postal address –so intended recipients do not receive the testing kit. This is one of the biggest factors associated with the uptake of an Australian trail where 20% of respondents in an Australian study claimed that they had not completed a FOB test because it had never been received in the post (Worthley at el., 2006). The Australian study also identified a preference by patients for increased GP involvement or promotion in the bowel cancer screening procedure (Salkeld et al., 2003; Worthley et al., 2006). Many patient may prefer to have been offered screening through their GP, while almost half of those patients suggesting an alternative method of invitation wanted greater GP involvement (Worthley et al., 2006). Similar evidence findings have emerged in the US, where a physician’s recommendation has been cited as the ‘strongest predictor’ of compliance with screening among men and women (Rabeneck, p. 1736, 2007). Overall discussion and conclusions about whether to implement the screening programme in light of the considerations already discussed and the UK NSC criteria (20 marks) Evidence suggests there is a reduction in colorectal cancer mortality as a result of introducing the UK bowel screening programme. Following the national evaluation, it is also indicated that there was a beneficial shift towards identifying colorectal cancer at an earlier stage (e.g. Duke’s Stage A). Other benefits of screening that were not explored in this essay include the reduction in colorectal cancer incidence through detection and removal of colorectal adenomas, and potentially, less invasive treatment of identified early-stage colorectal cancers. These outcomes alone may be justification enough to continue to implement the programme in the UK. Several important additional areas require further research when deciding whether to continue with the programme or not. First, there is limited information currently available concerning the information needs and psychosocial consequences of screening for colorectal cancer. Secondly, there is limited research on patient acceptance of colorectal cancer screening or on how best to involve particular socio-economic or ethnic groups who, as outlined previously, are often under-represented in uptake. Thirdly, the accuracy of other methods of the faecal occult blood test (e.g. RHNA) for colorectal cancer screening also requires further investigation. Maybe conclusions could be drawn through assessing the programme against the The UK NSC criteria which are considered below. NSC criteria states that all the cost-effective primary prevention interventions should have been implemented as far as practicable before consideration is given to proceed with the screening programme. This has not been the case in the UK. As outlined in this essay, greater effort could have been made to tackle the population risk factors before decision on implementing a ?50 million programme. The screening programme could also be seen to negate the need for individuals to take responsibility for lifestyle behaviour and the risks associated with colorectal cancer. In terms of ‘The test’, it is simple, safe, precise and validated as per NSC guidance, and is generally acceptable in the population. Although, the essay has outlined the differences in uptake by socio-economic group and ethnicity. When considering ‘The Treatment’, there are effective treatments for patients identified through early detection, and this evidence has shown to lead to better outcomes than late treatment. The Screening Programme is based on good evidence from high quality Randomised Controlled Trials that the screening programme is effective in reducing mortality or morbidity and there is evidence that it is clinically, socially and ethically acceptable to health professionals and the public. The benefits from the screening programme also outweigh the physical and psychological harm (caused by the test, diagnostic procedures and treatment). The opportunity cost of the screening programme resource has been touched upon in this essay. The view is that all other options for managing the condition have not been fully considered, particularly primary prevention. Overall, the national bowel screening programme does provide a population drop in mortality. The programme follows NSC guidance which is a benchmark for acceptability and although this essay supports the programme there still needs to be some further research undertaken in relation to uptake for specific population groups and the opportunity cost of the investment. References Allison, J., M. Tekawa, et al. (1996). â€Å"A comparison of faecal occult-blood test for colorectal cancer screening.† NEJM 334: 155-9. Donabedian, A. (1990), â€Å"The seven pillars of quality’’, Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vol. 114, pp. 1115-18. Hardcastle JD, Chamberlain JO, Robinson MHE, Moss SM, Amar SS, Balfour TW et al. Randomised controlled trial of faecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer. Lancet 1996, 348; 1472-1477 Hoff G, Bretthauer M (2008) Appointments timed in proximity to annual milestones and compliance with screening: randomised controlled trial. Br Med J 337: 2794 Khandker RZ, Dulski JD, Kilpatrick JB, Ellis RP, Mitchell JB, Baine WB: A decision model and cost-effectiveness analysis of colorectal cancer screening and surveillance guildelines for average-risk adults. Int J Tech Assess in Health Care 2000, 16;3:799-810. Kronborg O, Fenger C, Olsen J, Jorgensen OD, Sondergaard O. Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal occult blood test. Lancet 1996; 348; 1467-1471 Levin, B., K. Hess, et al. (1997). â€Å"Screening for colorectal cancer: a comparison of 3 faecal occult blood tests.† Archives of Internal Medicine 157(9): 970-7. Lieberman DA: Cost-effectiveness model for colon cancer screening. Gastroenterology 1995, 109:1781-90. Mandel JS, Bond JH, Church JR, Snover DC, Bradley GM, Schuman LM et al. Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for faecal occult blood. N Engl J Med 1993; 328; 1365-1371 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2007/042a updated. NICE responds to judicial review outcome. NCIN, Cancer Incidence by Deprivation England, 1995-2004. 2008. NHS MEL(1998)62. Screening for Colorectal Cancer Office for National Statistics. 2010. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/sdataset.asp?9091 Price et al. 2010) BMC Health Services Research 2010, 10:103 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/10/103 Rachet, B., et al., Population-based cancer survival trends in England and Wales up to 2007:an assessment of the NHS cancer plan for England The Lancet Oncology (2009). Raffle A, Gray M. Screening; Evidence and Practice, Oxford University Press, 2007. Rozen, P., J. Knaani, et al. (2000). â€Å"Comparative screening with a sensitive guaiac and specific immunochemical occult blood test in an endoscopic study.† Cancer 89: 45-52. Robb KA, Power E, Atkin W, Wardle J (2008) Ethnic differences in participation in flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in the UK. J Med Screen 15: 130–136 Salkeld, G., Solomon, M., Short, L., Ward, J. (2003). Measuring the impact of attributes that influence consumer attitudes to colorectal cancer screening. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 73, 128–132. Szczepura A, Price C, Gumber A (2008) Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns over 15 years for UK south Asian ethnic minority populations, corrected for differences in socio-demographic characteristics. BMC Public Health 8: 346 The NHS Cancer Plan Department of Health, 2000. Towler BP, Irwig L, Glasziou P, Weller D, Kewenter J. Screening for colorectal cancer using the faecal occult blood test, Hemoccult (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Issue 3, 2004. Scottish Executive Health Department (2006). Cancer Scenarios: An aid to planning cancer services in Scotland in the next decade. Edinburgh: The Scottish Executive. Steele RJC, Gnauck R, Hrcka R, Kronborg O, Kuntz C, Moayyedi P, et al (2004) Methods and economic considerations, Report from the ESGE/UEGF workshop on colorectal cancer screening. Endoscopy; 36, 349-53. Steele RJC, McClements PL, Libby G et al. (2008) Results from the first three rounds of the Scottish demonstration pilot of FOBT screening for colorectal cancer. Gut 2009 58: 530-535 originally published online November 26, 2008 doi: 10.1136/gut.2008.162883 Tengs TO, Adams ME, Pliskin JS, Safran DG, Siegel JE, Weinstein MC et al (1995) Five hundred life-saving interventions and their cost-effectiveness. Risk Analysis; 15, 369-90. UK CRC Screening Pilot Evaluation Team (2003) Evaluation of UK Colorectal Cancer Screening Pilot – Final Report UK Colorectal Cancer Screening Pilot Group (2004) Results of the first cycle of a demonstration pilot of screening for colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom. British Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/bmj.38153.491887.7C ( published 5 July 2004) Von Wagner C, Semmler C, Good A, Wardle J (2009b) Health literacy and self-efficacy for participating in colorectal cancer screening: the role of information processing. Patient Education. 75: 352–357 Weller D, Coleman D, Robertson R, Butler P, Melia J, Campbell C, Parker R, Patnick J, Moss S (2007) The UK bowel cancer screening pilot: results of the second round of screening in England. Br J Cancer 97: 1601–1605 Weller, D., Alexander, F., Orbell, S. et al. (2003) Evaluation of the UK colorectal cancer screening pilot: final report. NHS Cancer Screening Programmes Worthley, D., Cole, S., Esterman, A., Mehaffey, S., Roosa, N., Smith, A., et al. (2006). Screening for colorectal cancer by faecal occult blood test: Why people choose to refuse. Internal Medicine Journal, 36, 607–610. Young GP, St John JB, Winawer SJ, Rozen P. Choice of Faecal Occult Blood Tests for Colorectal cancer Screening: Recommendations Based on Performance Characteristics in population Studies. A WHO (World Health Organisation) and OMED (World Organisation for Digestive Endoscopy) Report. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 2002:97(10) 2499-2507. How to cite Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Human Cloning - Term Paper free essay sample

Based from Human Genome Project Information (n. d. ), â€Å"Cloning is a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. † It means creating a genetically identical copy of an organism. Scientists attempted to clone animals for many years. In fact, there are hundreds of cloned animals existing today. It started in 1952 when a tadpole was cloned. But worldwide attention and concerns only aroused in 1997 when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to clone a lamb, named Dolly (Bonsor and Conger, n. . ). People began to think for the possibility of using the same procedure to humans. No question human cloning ethics has become a great issue in the past few years. Many people seem to lack understanding of what cloning is. Most often people limit their knowledge of cloning only in its one type called reproductive cloning which intends to produce a fetus identical to its parent. Not knowing that there is another type of cloning called therapeutic cloning that can be used to generate only tissues and organs of humans for transplants. Reproductive human cloning should be legal as it makes an infertile couple able to have an offspring with the genetic pattern of either the mother or father. It is the desire of most couples to have children and when it is impossible to bare children of your own, some are willing to do anything to have a child even in the most crucial waycloning. The idea of cloning will allow them to have a child or many children that have the genetic pattern of one of the parents. They can have their own babies by putting cloned embryo into the mother. According to Bonsor and Conger (n. d. , It is made possible through a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the cloning of embryo starts with taking out the egg from a female donor, the doctor will remove its nucleus to form enucleated egg. Then a cell with genetic material of the person to be cloned will be fused to enucleated egg using electric current. The cloned embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother once it reaches a suitable stage. The surrogate mother will give birth to the cloned baby at the end of the normal gestation period. Likewise, couples of gays and lesbians can have their own abies by human cloning (Weekes, 2009). For lesbian couples, one of them can provide an egg and the other doesn’t need to provide a sperm, they can just provide the genes. For gay couples, it is just the same way but will have to find a mother to put the activated embryo in them and born them (Yanmi, 2009). Besides this, human cloning provides a wide range of organs in need, where it could save a lot of lives. In case a person needs an organ such as a pair of lungs, he/she could be cloned. Then the pair of lungs of the identical clone can be taken away for transplant. Also, according to Yanmi (2009), if a family member had died, it can be cloned. In this way, the pain of the family will be cured. With all the potential benefits of reproductive cloning for infertile couples, homosexual couples, and for treatment of diseases, it is beaten by the disadvantages listed by Pros to ban reproductive human cloning. Many bills in the United States are demanding for the prohibition of reproductive cloning since it has numerous medical and ethical disadvantages. The American Medical Association holds four points of reason why cloning should not take place. They are: 1) there are unknown physical harms introduced by cloning, 2) unknown psychosocial harms introduced by cloning, including violations of autonomy and privacy, 3) impacts on familial and societal relations, and 4) potential effects on the human gene pool. Technology in the first place, as we presently know it, will not effectively support the cloning of humans. As mentioned before, the success rate was quite low. It is reported before that a Korean doctor tried cloning a human but also killed it. No definite reason was stated, but I assume he had created a monster-like being with such abnormalities. From the conservative’s point of view, cloning is portraying the role of God. They argue that no one has the power to create humans except for God. It is not merely intervention in the body’s natural processes, but the creation of a new and wholly unnatural process of asexual reproduction. Reproductive cloning harms the integrity of the family as they say. Single people will be able to produce offspring without even the physical presence of a partner. From Hutch (2008), â€Å"Cloning will lead to eugenics, or the artificial manipulation and control of the characteristics of people. Pros to ban human cloning continues to defend their side as they point out that cloning will also lead to a diminished sense of identity and individuality for the resultant child. Instead of being considered as a unique individual, the child will be a copy of his parent, and be expected to share the same traits and interests, such that his life will no longer be his own. This becomes a viola tion of the liberty and autonomy that we grant to every human person. These are reasons why reproductive human cloning studies and attempts are banned in more than 50 countries (Bonsor amp; Conger, n. d. ). When there are numerous pros prohibiting studies and attempts about reproductive human cloning, therapeutic cloning gains more approval. It could be the new technology to save countless lives in the sense that it is a process of growing a stem cell. â€Å"These stem cells could become the basis for customized human repair kits,† (Smith, n. d. ) They can grow replacement organs, such as  hearts, livers and skin. It is done in this way, DNA is extracted from a sick person. Then the DNA is then inserted into an enucleated donor egg. The egg then divides like a typical fertilized egg and forms an embryo. Stem cells are removed from the embryo. Any kind of tissue or organ can be grown from these stem cells to treat various ailments and diseases (Bonsor amp; Conger, n. d. ). Many are suffering with cancer nowadays. Also with the help of therapeutic human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States and several other industrialized countries. Through therapeutic cloning, cancer may be possible to cure (Smith, n. d. ). Scientists still do not know exactly how cells differentiate into specific kinds of tissue, nor do they understand why cancerous cells lose their differentiation. But, Cloning, at long last, may be the key to understanding differentiation and cancer. It has the potential to improve the lives of hundreds of millions but much work and researches are still needed to make it a realistic option for treating many diseases (Human Genome Project Information, n. . ). The idea of human cloning is very fascinating for only a few and frightening for many, I supposed. Reproductive cloning should not be accepted. According to Governor Engler of Michigan, â€Å"Human cloning is wrong; it will be five years from now; and wrong 100 years from now! † I strongly believe that only God has the sole authority to create human beings. And any artificial or unnatural ways to bring life to this world is unethical. Reproductive cloning is a threat in the essence of our existence, our being, and our own nature. But as I understand therapeutic cloning, it is a different thing. I am open to the possibility of cloning organs and tissues for curing many types of disease. There is a high demand for human organs worldwide. So, if we can create organs for transplant with the use of the sick person’s own DNA, why not? To avoid patients wishing for one person to die so he can receive an organ for transplant, we can clone organs. Therapeutic cloning is more helpful in the advancement of science and medicine than reproductive cloning.