Saturday, May 23, 2020

The History Of The United States Is Marred With Instances

The history of the United States is marred with instances of racial injustice and discrimination. It was out this sordid history rose Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the African-American Civil Rights Movement. An eloquent King used his right to free speech and to peaceful assembly to bring light to the oppressive system of injustice, racism and discrimination affecting people of color. King and the civil rights movement may have brought about several changes and needed awakening, however, many of the problems still exist. This essay will examine how the system of racial injustice affects the treatment of African-Americans and Latinos as it relates to policing, sentencing and voting. Dr. King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail and Opal Tometi’s†¦show more content†¦I swiped my MetroCard and was making my way through the turnstile when I was accosted by three white New York Police Department (NYPD) officers. I was questioned about my whereto and my reason for having a student MetroCard. I guess I was too black to be going to school! Nevertheless, these instances of police profiling are neither new nor was it unique to me. It was the same type of victimization that resulted in the murder (not death) of Eric Gardner in Staten Island in 2014. Gardner like myself was about his own business when he was confronted by the said NYPD officers on â€Å"suspicion† of peddling. What ensued was a 19 seconds-long multi-officer chokehold while the dying father of 6 screams â€Å"I can’t breathe!†. Furthermore, how can we ever forget the police-murder of Tamir Rice. The 12-year-old black boy was playing with a toy gun in a swing at the park when he was gunned down by a white police officer. No questions asked; no calls made to put away the toy, Tamir was killed like a vicious adult serial killer. King in his letter described similar actions of â€Å"hate-filled† officers brutalizing and killing peaceful protestors with impunity. These are just a few examples that reveal the nasty vitriolic underbelly of an institution set against a race. It exposes the institutionalized degrading attitude towards the African-American community and especially the black male. It would appear as if the black man cannot existShow MoreRelatedHistory of Civil War882 Words   |  3 PagesUnfortunately, our modern society has been marred with war and strife over its eventful lifespan. A civil disagreement, when accompanied by mass offenses, often ends with deadly war. Throughout history, many nations have been unable to solve their personal grievances with one another in a diplomatic manner. In many instances are solves through protest, boycotts and other contentious means. However, in some instances, society elects the worst possible alternative, which is often war. In retrospectRead MoreGovernment is the Problem, Not the Solution Essay1011 Words   |  5 Pagesproblem. Over time history has been able to back up what Reagan once asserted. 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Their beliefs are rooted in American history: the conservatives draw ideological points both from interpretations of ancient scripture and from Progressive-era notions of â€Å"social hygiene† and the intimate relations of husbands and wives, and regard sex as a sacred act reserved for the sacredRead MoreThe US Invasion of Grenada Essay1366 Words   |  6 Pagesan invasion of the Caribbean island nation by forces led by the United States. It resulted into victory for the United States in just a few weeks . Grenada is a nation inhabited by approximately 91,000 people. The invasion was prompted by a military coup, which ousted the revolutionary government, it restored the constitutional government. The invasion was also as a response to the request for help by the Organization of American States (OAS). The official reason given by the U.S government for theRead MoreCarol Karlsen s The Devil1692 Words   |  7 Pagesconducted in an attempt to maintain this societal structure. Since these hunts were placed under a religious guise, it was simple for these individuals to act as if they were maintaining the safety and justice of society. Karlsen explains that in many instances, women who were labelled as witches were often females that had managed to acquire great economic and social status and society. In fear of these women, the neighborhood targeted them and called them witches to weaken their power. Independent ofRead MoreHistorical Events and Influence on Current Life1362 Words   |  5 Pagesaffect individuals and families, such as political and economic changes, war and technological innovations. (Price, S. J et al, 2002) In the period of 1960s, in the history of America a lot of events took place some of which left a lasting legacy experienced in various spheres of society and government to date. The Vietnam War for instance brought about a new perspective in the family structure in America. The idea of a father mother family as the ideal family changed to embrace the concept of extended

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Marketing Plan. Brain Juice - 5221 Words

Brain Juice: Captivating Creativity and Rejuvenating the Brain Executive Summary BrainJuice, the singular product offering of Austin, Texas based AlphaWave Labs, came onto the market with very little promotion or marketing. Even after its entry into the market, the product has had little push from the firm itself to bolster sales or retain customers. The product is strong, as it is an all-natural alternative to prescription medication or energy drinks designed to help with focus. However, the strategy with which it has been marketed has almost failed to exist, necessitating an overhaul of the approach to increase revenues and secure enduring clientele. With promotional strategies amongst college campuses, more diverse customer†¦show more content†¦Thus, listed beliefs like â€Å"We believe America is on too many pharmaceuticals, most of which mask symptoms,† will be reworked to promote all-natural products, but not while judging the medicinal intake of others. The beliefs should focus more on BrainJuice, in asserting things li ke â€Å"We believe in the wholesome approach to treating attention difficulties with safe, all-natural products.† Moreover, the core principles of the company are all questions that the firm and the employees can ask internally to ensure quality and ethical standards. These core principles cover the areas of integrity, health, service, humility and play. The overarching idea that the company is responsible to the customer and to its investors in terms of success will remain relevant, even with a marketing plan in place, as the need to find a healthy medium between science, customer service and employee satisfaction cannot be understated. However, the focus on making it fun and playful needs to be replaced by a notion of being fulfilling or satisfying, as opposed to fun. AlphaWave Labs needs to be a desirable workplace, especially as the company continues to grow; however, the focus cannot be on fun if the company wants to remain viable amongst stiff competition with far m ore years of experience and far deeper pockets. Situation Analysis (SWOT)Show MoreRelatedConsumer Behavior : Building Marketing Strategies1246 Words   |  5 PagesMothersbaugh, and Mookerjee agree in their book, â€Å"Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategies,† published in 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies in New York, that all marketing decisions are based on assumptions and knowledge of consumer behavior. Colour is a visual experience that we receive through our eyes. The world is shown in colour and this element it is the protagonist of many of our expressions. Moreover, our brain is programmed to react to colours. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom Free Essays

string(69) " and a high specificity \(to reduce the number of false positives\)\." Introduction Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom with approximately 35,000 new cases diagnosed each year. 1 in 16 men and 1 in 20 women will develop colorectal cancer at some point in their lives. It is also the second most common cause of cancer death, with just over 16,000 (approximately 9,000 men and 7,000 women) deaths per year (ONS, 2010) Incidence rates for colorectal cancer increased by 28 per cent for men and 11 per cent for women between 1971 and 2007. We will write a custom essay sample on Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom or any similar topic only for you Order Now Rates peaked at 57 per 100,000 in men in 1999 and 38 per 100,000 women in 1992. In the ten year period from 1998 to 2007, incidence rates for men and women have remained relatively stable (ONS 2010). Being overweight, having an inactive lifestyle and a low fibre diet can increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Eating red and processed meat, and insufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables, smoking and drinking excess alcohol are contributing factors. People with Crohn’s disease in the colon, ulcerative colitis, polyps in the colon or a family history of colorectal cancer may also be at an increased risk (Department of Health, 2000). More than four out of every five new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed in people aged 60 and over, with most cases presenting in the 70-79 age group in men and in the 75 and over age group in women (ONS, 2010). Survival from cancers of the colon and rectum has doubled in 30 years. For colon cancer, five-year survival was 50% for men and 51% for women diagnosed in 2001-2006 and followed up to 2007. Five-year survival for those diagnosed in 1971-1975 and followed up to 1995 was 22 per cent for men and 23 per cent for women (Rachet et al 2009). Differences in survival rates are based on how early, or at what ‘stage’, a patient presents for treatment. This ‘staging’ is a method (first developed in 1932) of evaluating the progress of the cancer in a patient. The classification considers the extent to which the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Once established, the best course of treatment is then decided. There are currently for categories: Dukes Stage A: The tumour penetrates into the mucosa of the bowel wall but no further Dukes Stage B: The tumour penetrates into, but not through the muscularis propria (the muscular layer) of the bowel wall. Dukes Stage C: The tumour penetrates into, but not through the muscularis propria of the bowel wall; there is pathologic evidence of colon cancer in the lymph nodes. C2: tumour penetrates into and through the muscularis propria of the bowel wall; there is pathologic evidence of colon cancer in the lymph nodes. Dukes Stage D: The tumour, which has spread beyond the confines of the lymph nodes (to organs such as the liver, lung or bone). Five year survival rates according to the Dukes’ stage of classification are: Dukes’ Stage A 85–95%, B 60–80%, C 30–60%, D less than 10%. These significant differences in survival rates were the basis for the introduction of a national screening programme for bowel cancer (Rachet et al 2009). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England began in July 2006, as part of the NHS National Cancer Plan (2000). Patients aged between 60-69 were initially offered screening every two years and people 70 and over could request it via their GP. The criteria has since changed (from January 2010) with screening now offered to those aged 70-75 years. The objective of bowel screening is to detect bowel cancer at an early stage and get these identified patients into an appropriate treatment pathway. The screening programme can also detect polyps, which, although are not cancers they may develop into cancers over time. They can easily be removed which reduces the risk of bowel cancer developing. This essay outlines the process of the UK bowel screening programme and from this provides a critical analysis of the test, performance and cost-effectiveness leading to a broader discussion considering whether to implement the screening programme in relation to UK NSC criteria. Description and critical analysis of the evidence about the test performance (15 marks) Screening is defined by Raffle Gray (2007) as; ‘The systematic application of a test, or inquiry, to identify individuals at sufficient risk of a specific disorder to warrant further investigation or direct preventive action, amongst persons who have not sought medical attention on account of symptoms of that disorder.’ There is a distinct difference between screening and case finding (e.g. NHS Health Check) – In clinical practice, patients approach healthcare professionals to ask for medical advice and help, in contrast with screening programmes, where professionals actively encourage people to undergo an investigation on the basis that it may benefit them. The performance of a screening programme is based on its ‘sensitivity’ and ‘specificity’. The sensitivity of a screening test is the percentage of the screened population that has the disease and tests positive. For instance, a sensitivity of 70% means that for every ten participants with the disease, seven will test positive and the other three will be false negatives. A test with poor sensitivity results in a high percentage of the population with the disease escaping detection. These people will be falsely reassured and could delay presenting important symptoms. The specificity of a test is the percentage of the screened population that is disease free and also tests negative. For instance, a specificity of 80% means that eight out of ten people who do not have the disease will have a negative result. Two out of ten will have a false positive result and require further assessment before the possibility of disease can be eliminated. A test with poor specificity will have an important effect for the individual, including increased anxiety and unnecessary clinical follow up. The ideal screening test would have a high sensitivity (to reduce the number of false negatives) and a high specificity (to reduce the number of false positives). You read "Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom" in category "Essay examples" It is usually difficult to achieve this as there is a trade off between the two measures; limiting the criteria for one results in a decrease in the other. Another key feature of a screening test is the predictive value for which there are two key aspects. The positive predictive value (PPV) of a test is the percentage of people who test positive who have the disease. The negative predictive value is the percentage of those who test negative who are disease free. The predictive value is influenced by both the sensitivity and specificity of the test, as well as the prevalence of the condition being screened for. In the UK the screening test used for the bowel screening programme is the ’faecal occult blood test’ (FOBT). In terms of operational delivery there are approximately 20 Hubs across the country responsible for coordinating the screening programme, each Hub sends out letters of invitation to the eligible population, explaining about bowel cancer screening.Standard practice ensures that within a week of receiving a letter a FOBT kit will be sent to patients. The kits are used by the patient, samples taken and returned to the Hub, who then send normal results to individuals, and inform GPs via a standards letter. For positive tests, the Hub contacts the individual directly, and an appointment is them made for the patient to have further investigations (colonoscopy) with the commissioned provider of colonoscopy services. The test and the framework for its operational delivery are based on a number of large scale trials which were undertaken to assess whether FOB testing of asymptomatic people could be useful in detecting individuals with early bowel cancer the largest trial conducted in Nottingham. The trials and the subsequent UK pilots (2008) found: uptake of approximately 60%, subsequent pilots returned a lower uptake which decreased with deprivation sensitivity was approximately 60% for cancer and 80% for adenomas biannual testing was as effective as annual testing screening of asymptomatic 55-75-year-olds reduced mortality from bowel cancer by 16% overall, or by 25% in those 60% of individuals who return an FOBT there was no reduction in all-cause mortality from FOB screening. These results meant that FOBT can detect 60% of all colon cancers. Alternatively, this also means that 40% are not routinely detected. This lower sensitivity rate is a trade off based on the fact that FOBT screening is non-invasive, easily performed without the need for bowel preparation, and can be performed on transported specimens and of low cost. A higher sensitivity rate could be achieved through once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in prevention of colorectal cancer but uptake, patient acceptability and cost would be a barrier to population roll-out. Description and critical analysis of the evidence about the cost-effectiveness (15 marks) There are a number of research publications that compare specific models of bowel screening through the application of different these will be described, but from a public health perspective, this essay will also consider the wider opportunity cost in relation to bowel screening. Agreement relating to how cost-effective an intervention is depends on what the intervention is being compared against. For instance, a starting point in the evaluation of the UK pilot for Bowel Screening Cost-effectiveness (2003) states ‘Analysis found that the cost-effectiveness of a national programme compared well with other forms of cancer screening such as breast and cervical cancer screening.’ This statement is all about comparison with associated interventions that are deemed reasonable and safe with a generally fair return on investment – this is more about acceptable levels of investment producing acceptable levels of return compared to similar interventions of the same type rather than considering whether the programme can be delivered more efficiently or could the resource be allocated in a different way to achieve the desired results. The issue of whether the programme could be delivered more cost effectively has been reviewed in a number of publications (Allison et al. 2006. Rozen et al. 2000. Levin et al 1997). These comparisons have, in particular, considered the merits of; FOBT alone, flexible sigmoidoscopy and FOBT combined, and one-off colonoscopy with cost-effectiveness more often defined as the cost per cancer death prevented. Of all the screening tests, FOBT alone prevents fewer cancer deaths than the other interventions, but the addition of a flexible sigmoidoscopy to the FOBT increases the rate of cancer prevention. One-off colonoscopy has the greatest impact on colorectal cancer mortality. Although purported to be the most cost effective the outcomes are all based on clinical outcome alone but when considering cost FOBT returns better broader population results (in terms of patient acceptability and absolute cost to deliver) than any other of the interventions outlined. One of the most popular measures of cost effectiveness is considered through estimating the lifetime NHS costs and potential health benefits (defined as cost per QALY – quality-adjusted life-years). For bowel screening this equates to comparing the population not offered screening but treated according to current practice compared with a sample of the population who are offered screening as per the protocol used in the pilot study. The cost per QALY is the additional costs of screening, after allowing for treatment cost savings, and the gain in survival and quality of life. The problem with QALYs has always been the question of what is the upper limit on what society is prepared to pay for health gains.The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) provides some limited information about upper limits in this context. It has been suggested that ?30,000 per QALY might represent an acceptable threshold (NICE, 2008). Studies (Young et al, 2005. Lieberman, 2005. Khandker RZ, 2000) have returned a cost per QALY for bowel screening of between ?2,000 to ?3,000 which is well within the acceptable cost guidance offered through NICE but this does not mean that it is the more cost effective or efficient way of delivering the service. Raffle Gray (2007) touch on the issue of broader public health view and the influence of single issue groups, they outlined that; ‘If information for policy making is to serve the health needs of the public to best effect, then it must enable policy makers to keep a sense of perspective and context. Doing this requires policy questions that are concerned with whole programmes of care, not just the single issue being considered.’ If we consider this in the context of a UK bowel screening programme costing ?50 million per year can we justify its delivery on the associated reduction in mortality of up to 16%On face value, it seems we can (e.g. economic analysis and QALY returns etc) – but that is assuming 60% uptake. PCTs in the West Midlands are currently delivering the programme at between 28% and 42% uptake. As public health policy makers at what point do we consider the low uptake at sustained high cost as a reasonable return on investment There may be a greater return on investment if the ?50 million was invested in broader public health programmes targeted at reducing the population risks by changing behaviour (e.g. smoking cessation, diet, exercise). Taking this even further, could we reinvest the total ?50 million in another, unrelated, public health issue such as falls prevention programmes and tackle the risk factors associated with bowel cancer through legislation and regulation (e.g. increased taxation of tobacco or introducing a more challenging approach to price per unit for alcohol) In the long term, this may have more effect on a population effect on bowel cancer mortality at a lower cost. Description and analysis of the ethical issues associated with implementing this screening programme including accessibility, equity, the balance of harm and good and informed choice (15 marks) The benefits of bowel screening include a modest reduction in colorectal cancer mortality and a possible reduction in cancer incidence through the detection and removal of colorectal adenomas. These benefits need to balanced against the potential harm of the programme. One of these identified harms is the psycho-social consequences of receiving a false-positive result or a false-negative result, the possibility of over diagnosis (leading to unnecessary investigations or treatment) and the complications associated with treatment. Another key possible harm relates to the possibility of bowel perforation for those patients who have with a positive FOBT and require further investigation. The UK National Bowel Cancer Screening evaluation (2003) suggested a perforation rate of 1 in 1500 colonoscopies. This compares well with other bowel screening programmes in Australia and France which have returned a rate of 0.96 per 1000 procedures . Following a diagnosis of perforation, most patients (over 90%) require surgery, and a significant number (30%) require colostomy or ileostomy. From a health inequalities viewpoint there are a number of issues relating to accessibility and equity that are cause for concern. The first of these is the issues of uptake in the context of deprivation. Data for 2004-2008 shows us that there is a 11% of higher incidence rate of colon cancer for males in the most deprived population compared with the least deprived population (ONS 2008). This can be compared with uptake of screening which has demonstrated that males and younger age groups have lower uptake rates (Weller et al, 2007). In the long term this pattern has the potential to further increase inequalities in health. There is also strong evidence that suggests certain ethnic sub-groups have lower participation rates of bowel screening than the general population (Robb et al, 2008; Szczepura et al, 2008). The reasons for these differences are complex ranging from health beliefs, misunderstanding and cultural attitudes. This defined lack of uptake by ethnic group is not evident in all screening programmes, for example, South Asian women are significantly less likely to undertake bowel screening compared to breast screening (29% compared to 49%) (Price et al. 2010). This suggests more research needs to be undertaken to try and understand the key factors involved. Literacy can also be linked to deprivation and ethnicity and is a critical factor in participation in colorectal cancer screening. As with many screening programmes a great deal of resource has been allocated to producing information and materials for the bowel cancer screening programmes – but we know that health literacy varies a great deal in the population (Von Wagner et al, 2009), and many patients will have limited comprehension of the material provided. Equity of access to diagnostic services is also a possible issue to manage. For two of the hospitals participating in the UK bowel screening pilot, there were significant differences between waiting times for colonoscopy for screened and symptomatic patients. For example, in Scotland the average waiting times for pilot patients was between 2 and 7 weeks, whereas for symptomatic patients they rose from around 10 weeks to between 16 and 20 weeks within the first year of the Pilot (Scottish Executive Health department 2006). Description of how to implement programme quality assurance and an assessment of the practical issues with implementation (15 marks) There are a number of frameworks for assessing and assuring the quality of healthcare service. Examples include Deming’s 14 principles of management and Donabedian’s seven components of quality. Raffle and Gray build in these two models and advocate six key points in applying quality assurance to screening. These are; Defining the objectives of the programme in a way that encapsulates what a ‘good’ screening programme will look like. Devise ways of measuring quality that will ensure these objectives are met. Set standards for each measurement; this is a subjectively chosen level that you will want the programme to achieve. Give responsibility to the local programmes for monitoring, how well they are doing in meeting the standards, and for working to improve quality in meeting those standards. Collate information about performance against standards and publications nationally for all the local programmes Provide support mechanisms for overseeing quality and for assisting local programmes with training and quality improvement. One way of doing this is by creating regional quality assurance teams. From personal experience, working with breast screening a cervical screening programmes, the need for clear standards and an overarching review process (the support mechanism) is essential. A ‘deep dive’ approach to some of the key performance indicators is also very useful. For example, if the target for local uptake is 60% a PCT, with the help of public health team, should approach this in terms of ensuring this uptake is achieved within the hardest to reach populations. In terms of the practical issues of implementation issues such as ease of completing the kit can be an important factor in determining uptake (The UK CRC Screening Pilot Evaluation Team, 2003). Uptake can also be greatly affected by simple mistakes in postal address –so intended recipients do not receive the testing kit. This is one of the biggest factors associated with the uptake of an Australian trail where 20% of respondents in an Australian study claimed that they had not completed a FOB test because it had never been received in the post (Worthley at el., 2006). The Australian study also identified a preference by patients for increased GP involvement or promotion in the bowel cancer screening procedure (Salkeld et al., 2003; Worthley et al., 2006). Many patient may prefer to have been offered screening through their GP, while almost half of those patients suggesting an alternative method of invitation wanted greater GP involvement (Worthley et al., 2006). Similar evidence findings have emerged in the US, where a physician’s recommendation has been cited as the ‘strongest predictor’ of compliance with screening among men and women (Rabeneck, p. 1736, 2007). Overall discussion and conclusions about whether to implement the screening programme in light of the considerations already discussed and the UK NSC criteria (20 marks) Evidence suggests there is a reduction in colorectal cancer mortality as a result of introducing the UK bowel screening programme. Following the national evaluation, it is also indicated that there was a beneficial shift towards identifying colorectal cancer at an earlier stage (e.g. Duke’s Stage A). Other benefits of screening that were not explored in this essay include the reduction in colorectal cancer incidence through detection and removal of colorectal adenomas, and potentially, less invasive treatment of identified early-stage colorectal cancers. These outcomes alone may be justification enough to continue to implement the programme in the UK. Several important additional areas require further research when deciding whether to continue with the programme or not. First, there is limited information currently available concerning the information needs and psychosocial consequences of screening for colorectal cancer. Secondly, there is limited research on patient acceptance of colorectal cancer screening or on how best to involve particular socio-economic or ethnic groups who, as outlined previously, are often under-represented in uptake. Thirdly, the accuracy of other methods of the faecal occult blood test (e.g. RHNA) for colorectal cancer screening also requires further investigation. Maybe conclusions could be drawn through assessing the programme against the The UK NSC criteria which are considered below. NSC criteria states that all the cost-effective primary prevention interventions should have been implemented as far as practicable before consideration is given to proceed with the screening programme. This has not been the case in the UK. As outlined in this essay, greater effort could have been made to tackle the population risk factors before decision on implementing a ?50 million programme. The screening programme could also be seen to negate the need for individuals to take responsibility for lifestyle behaviour and the risks associated with colorectal cancer. In terms of ‘The test’, it is simple, safe, precise and validated as per NSC guidance, and is generally acceptable in the population. Although, the essay has outlined the differences in uptake by socio-economic group and ethnicity. When considering ‘The Treatment’, there are effective treatments for patients identified through early detection, and this evidence has shown to lead to better outcomes than late treatment. The Screening Programme is based on good evidence from high quality Randomised Controlled Trials that the screening programme is effective in reducing mortality or morbidity and there is evidence that it is clinically, socially and ethically acceptable to health professionals and the public. The benefits from the screening programme also outweigh the physical and psychological harm (caused by the test, diagnostic procedures and treatment). The opportunity cost of the screening programme resource has been touched upon in this essay. The view is that all other options for managing the condition have not been fully considered, particularly primary prevention. Overall, the national bowel screening programme does provide a population drop in mortality. The programme follows NSC guidance which is a benchmark for acceptability and although this essay supports the programme there still needs to be some further research undertaken in relation to uptake for specific population groups and the opportunity cost of the investment. References Allison, J., M. Tekawa, et al. (1996). â€Å"A comparison of faecal occult-blood test for colorectal cancer screening.† NEJM 334: 155-9. Donabedian, A. (1990), â€Å"The seven pillars of quality’’, Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vol. 114, pp. 1115-18. Hardcastle JD, Chamberlain JO, Robinson MHE, Moss SM, Amar SS, Balfour TW et al. Randomised controlled trial of faecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer. Lancet 1996, 348; 1472-1477 Hoff G, Bretthauer M (2008) Appointments timed in proximity to annual milestones and compliance with screening: randomised controlled trial. Br Med J 337: 2794 Khandker RZ, Dulski JD, Kilpatrick JB, Ellis RP, Mitchell JB, Baine WB: A decision model and cost-effectiveness analysis of colorectal cancer screening and surveillance guildelines for average-risk adults. Int J Tech Assess in Health Care 2000, 16;3:799-810. Kronborg O, Fenger C, Olsen J, Jorgensen OD, Sondergaard O. Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal occult blood test. Lancet 1996; 348; 1467-1471 Levin, B., K. Hess, et al. (1997). â€Å"Screening for colorectal cancer: a comparison of 3 faecal occult blood tests.† Archives of Internal Medicine 157(9): 970-7. Lieberman DA: Cost-effectiveness model for colon cancer screening. Gastroenterology 1995, 109:1781-90. Mandel JS, Bond JH, Church JR, Snover DC, Bradley GM, Schuman LM et al. Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for faecal occult blood. N Engl J Med 1993; 328; 1365-1371 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2007/042a updated. NICE responds to judicial review outcome. NCIN, Cancer Incidence by Deprivation England, 1995-2004. 2008. NHS MEL(1998)62. Screening for Colorectal Cancer Office for National Statistics. 2010. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/sdataset.asp?9091 Price et al. 2010) BMC Health Services Research 2010, 10:103 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/10/103 Rachet, B., et al., Population-based cancer survival trends in England and Wales up to 2007:an assessment of the NHS cancer plan for England The Lancet Oncology (2009). Raffle A, Gray M. Screening; Evidence and Practice, Oxford University Press, 2007. Rozen, P., J. Knaani, et al. (2000). â€Å"Comparative screening with a sensitive guaiac and specific immunochemical occult blood test in an endoscopic study.† Cancer 89: 45-52. Robb KA, Power E, Atkin W, Wardle J (2008) Ethnic differences in participation in flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in the UK. J Med Screen 15: 130–136 Salkeld, G., Solomon, M., Short, L., Ward, J. (2003). Measuring the impact of attributes that influence consumer attitudes to colorectal cancer screening. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 73, 128–132. Szczepura A, Price C, Gumber A (2008) Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns over 15 years for UK south Asian ethnic minority populations, corrected for differences in socio-demographic characteristics. BMC Public Health 8: 346 The NHS Cancer Plan Department of Health, 2000. Towler BP, Irwig L, Glasziou P, Weller D, Kewenter J. Screening for colorectal cancer using the faecal occult blood test, Hemoccult (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Issue 3, 2004. Scottish Executive Health Department (2006). Cancer Scenarios: An aid to planning cancer services in Scotland in the next decade. Edinburgh: The Scottish Executive. Steele RJC, Gnauck R, Hrcka R, Kronborg O, Kuntz C, Moayyedi P, et al (2004) Methods and economic considerations, Report from the ESGE/UEGF workshop on colorectal cancer screening. Endoscopy; 36, 349-53. Steele RJC, McClements PL, Libby G et al. (2008) Results from the first three rounds of the Scottish demonstration pilot of FOBT screening for colorectal cancer. Gut 2009 58: 530-535 originally published online November 26, 2008 doi: 10.1136/gut.2008.162883 Tengs TO, Adams ME, Pliskin JS, Safran DG, Siegel JE, Weinstein MC et al (1995) Five hundred life-saving interventions and their cost-effectiveness. Risk Analysis; 15, 369-90. UK CRC Screening Pilot Evaluation Team (2003) Evaluation of UK Colorectal Cancer Screening Pilot – Final Report UK Colorectal Cancer Screening Pilot Group (2004) Results of the first cycle of a demonstration pilot of screening for colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom. British Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/bmj.38153.491887.7C ( published 5 July 2004) Von Wagner C, Semmler C, Good A, Wardle J (2009b) Health literacy and self-efficacy for participating in colorectal cancer screening: the role of information processing. Patient Education. 75: 352–357 Weller D, Coleman D, Robertson R, Butler P, Melia J, Campbell C, Parker R, Patnick J, Moss S (2007) The UK bowel cancer screening pilot: results of the second round of screening in England. Br J Cancer 97: 1601–1605 Weller, D., Alexander, F., Orbell, S. et al. (2003) Evaluation of the UK colorectal cancer screening pilot: final report. NHS Cancer Screening Programmes Worthley, D., Cole, S., Esterman, A., Mehaffey, S., Roosa, N., Smith, A., et al. (2006). Screening for colorectal cancer by faecal occult blood test: Why people choose to refuse. Internal Medicine Journal, 36, 607–610. Young GP, St John JB, Winawer SJ, Rozen P. Choice of Faecal Occult Blood Tests for Colorectal cancer Screening: Recommendations Based on Performance Characteristics in population Studies. A WHO (World Health Organisation) and OMED (World Organisation for Digestive Endoscopy) Report. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 2002:97(10) 2499-2507. How to cite Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Human Cloning - Term Paper free essay sample

Based from Human Genome Project Information (n. d. ), â€Å"Cloning is a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. † It means creating a genetically identical copy of an organism. Scientists attempted to clone animals for many years. In fact, there are hundreds of cloned animals existing today. It started in 1952 when a tadpole was cloned. But worldwide attention and concerns only aroused in 1997 when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to clone a lamb, named Dolly (Bonsor and Conger, n. . ). People began to think for the possibility of using the same procedure to humans. No question human cloning ethics has become a great issue in the past few years. Many people seem to lack understanding of what cloning is. Most often people limit their knowledge of cloning only in its one type called reproductive cloning which intends to produce a fetus identical to its parent. Not knowing that there is another type of cloning called therapeutic cloning that can be used to generate only tissues and organs of humans for transplants. Reproductive human cloning should be legal as it makes an infertile couple able to have an offspring with the genetic pattern of either the mother or father. It is the desire of most couples to have children and when it is impossible to bare children of your own, some are willing to do anything to have a child even in the most crucial waycloning. The idea of cloning will allow them to have a child or many children that have the genetic pattern of one of the parents. They can have their own babies by putting cloned embryo into the mother. According to Bonsor and Conger (n. d. , It is made possible through a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the cloning of embryo starts with taking out the egg from a female donor, the doctor will remove its nucleus to form enucleated egg. Then a cell with genetic material of the person to be cloned will be fused to enucleated egg using electric current. The cloned embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother once it reaches a suitable stage. The surrogate mother will give birth to the cloned baby at the end of the normal gestation period. Likewise, couples of gays and lesbians can have their own abies by human cloning (Weekes, 2009). For lesbian couples, one of them can provide an egg and the other doesn’t need to provide a sperm, they can just provide the genes. For gay couples, it is just the same way but will have to find a mother to put the activated embryo in them and born them (Yanmi, 2009). Besides this, human cloning provides a wide range of organs in need, where it could save a lot of lives. In case a person needs an organ such as a pair of lungs, he/she could be cloned. Then the pair of lungs of the identical clone can be taken away for transplant. Also, according to Yanmi (2009), if a family member had died, it can be cloned. In this way, the pain of the family will be cured. With all the potential benefits of reproductive cloning for infertile couples, homosexual couples, and for treatment of diseases, it is beaten by the disadvantages listed by Pros to ban reproductive human cloning. Many bills in the United States are demanding for the prohibition of reproductive cloning since it has numerous medical and ethical disadvantages. The American Medical Association holds four points of reason why cloning should not take place. They are: 1) there are unknown physical harms introduced by cloning, 2) unknown psychosocial harms introduced by cloning, including violations of autonomy and privacy, 3) impacts on familial and societal relations, and 4) potential effects on the human gene pool. Technology in the first place, as we presently know it, will not effectively support the cloning of humans. As mentioned before, the success rate was quite low. It is reported before that a Korean doctor tried cloning a human but also killed it. No definite reason was stated, but I assume he had created a monster-like being with such abnormalities. From the conservative’s point of view, cloning is portraying the role of God. They argue that no one has the power to create humans except for God. It is not merely intervention in the body’s natural processes, but the creation of a new and wholly unnatural process of asexual reproduction. Reproductive cloning harms the integrity of the family as they say. Single people will be able to produce offspring without even the physical presence of a partner. From Hutch (2008), â€Å"Cloning will lead to eugenics, or the artificial manipulation and control of the characteristics of people. Pros to ban human cloning continues to defend their side as they point out that cloning will also lead to a diminished sense of identity and individuality for the resultant child. Instead of being considered as a unique individual, the child will be a copy of his parent, and be expected to share the same traits and interests, such that his life will no longer be his own. This becomes a viola tion of the liberty and autonomy that we grant to every human person. These are reasons why reproductive human cloning studies and attempts are banned in more than 50 countries (Bonsor amp; Conger, n. d. ). When there are numerous pros prohibiting studies and attempts about reproductive human cloning, therapeutic cloning gains more approval. It could be the new technology to save countless lives in the sense that it is a process of growing a stem cell. â€Å"These stem cells could become the basis for customized human repair kits,† (Smith, n. d. ) They can grow replacement organs, such as  hearts, livers and skin. It is done in this way, DNA is extracted from a sick person. Then the DNA is then inserted into an enucleated donor egg. The egg then divides like a typical fertilized egg and forms an embryo. Stem cells are removed from the embryo. Any kind of tissue or organ can be grown from these stem cells to treat various ailments and diseases (Bonsor amp; Conger, n. d. ). Many are suffering with cancer nowadays. Also with the help of therapeutic human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States and several other industrialized countries. Through therapeutic cloning, cancer may be possible to cure (Smith, n. d. ). Scientists still do not know exactly how cells differentiate into specific kinds of tissue, nor do they understand why cancerous cells lose their differentiation. But, Cloning, at long last, may be the key to understanding differentiation and cancer. It has the potential to improve the lives of hundreds of millions but much work and researches are still needed to make it a realistic option for treating many diseases (Human Genome Project Information, n. . ). The idea of human cloning is very fascinating for only a few and frightening for many, I supposed. Reproductive cloning should not be accepted. According to Governor Engler of Michigan, â€Å"Human cloning is wrong; it will be five years from now; and wrong 100 years from now! † I strongly believe that only God has the sole authority to create human beings. And any artificial or unnatural ways to bring life to this world is unethical. Reproductive cloning is a threat in the essence of our existence, our being, and our own nature. But as I understand therapeutic cloning, it is a different thing. I am open to the possibility of cloning organs and tissues for curing many types of disease. There is a high demand for human organs worldwide. So, if we can create organs for transplant with the use of the sick person’s own DNA, why not? To avoid patients wishing for one person to die so he can receive an organ for transplant, we can clone organs. Therapeutic cloning is more helpful in the advancement of science and medicine than reproductive cloning.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Why These Students Chose USC (And Why You Should Too)

As the enrollment deadline approaches, high school seniors who were accepted to multiple schools are beginning to panic about where to commit. Many students have to consider the benefits of each program, financial aid, location, and ultimately, where they’ll be happiest. If the University of Southern California is on your list, maybe these USC students will help you make your choice: FernilionClass of 2020Not only is USC one of the top 10 architecture schools in the nation, but it is one of the only schools that has the complete campus feel while still being smack dab in the center of a large and vibrant city. The combination of being in the Los Angeles area and having the Trojan Alumni network area make me confident that Ill leave college with a job.JzeeClass of 2019 Money was huge factor. USC awarded me the Trustee Scholarship, giving me full-tuition for my undergraduate degree and therefore allowing me to graduate in 2019 without debt. Do not overlook the importance of your financial situation! Though debt right now may just seem like numbers, understand that after graduation, those numbers will become real-life, daily burdens that you will feel and experience. My program, the Iovine and Young Academy, also completely fit my interests. Through my application process, I looked for schools that could cater to my interdisciplinary needs. This program, through which I will earn a Bachelor of Science in the Arts, Technology, and Business of Innovation, encompasses all I looked for in a degree: flexibility between my passions in art and programming, smaller classes, and resources for success. JLee1126 Class of 2019 I chose USC because of the Trojan family. Particularly for Business Administration, having that network will be useful in finding jobs and internships in the future. And growing up in a rural area my entire life, Ive always been drawn to the city and Los Angeles is a phenomenal location regardless of my major. I have a huge interest in Tesla Motors and since they are based in California, I saw USC as a way to potentially seek a career there. While USC is nearly twice as expensive as my next choice school, I value the Trojan family and am willing to take on the loans and cost of attendance to access those connections. LA is also a hub for business and startups, unlike my second choice school (UIUC, business honors program). lamborghinibear Class of 2019 At the very end, I was completely torn between choosing USCs Marshall School of Business and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in hopes of eventually being accepted into its Kenan-Flagler Business School. Both schools are certainly highly prestigious, social, and career-driven universities. However, when it came right down to it, the fact that I would be restricted to a 2 year business program at a university geared towards getting students a job on the East Coast made UNC a difficult school to choose when I had exactly what I wanted close to home, in downtown Los Angeles. The Trojan Family created by USC is something very difficult to turn down, especially since it thrives right where I live and want to live for the rest of my life. The security of its campus, the diversity of student body, the dining options on and off campus, and pretty much every other factor made USC and UNC equal schools for what I wanted to. It really came down to the fact that USC is in Los Ange les, Marshall is a 4 year business program, and I was invited to participate in the Global Leadership Program that allows me to travel to China Freshman Year to study international business. Samishark17 Class of 2018 At the time of my decision, I narrowed down my options to my current school (USC), UCLA, and UC Berkeley. I had eliminated the other schools I was accepted into because of distance from home, cost, and opportunity/reputation. I decided on USC because 1) I received a merit based scholarship that covered half of my tuition and cut costs drastically, 2) It was close to home 3) It allowed me the flexibility I needed to explore, since Im still not 100% certain what I want to do as my career (UC schools are phenomenal, but impacted; I didnt want to risk going over 4 years) 4) It was a really good fit for me. The students were friendly, accommodating, and cooperative. There wasnt that air of stress or cut-throat competition you could feel (and hear about) at the other schools. Did that help you decide to commit to USC? Share your with us and help others who are interested in your school better understand the application process. Plus, you get to cash out your$10 signup bonusand earn extra money for college! What are you waiting for?

Friday, March 6, 2020

post modernism critique essays

post modernism critique essays The 20th Century, in many ways, can be remembered as a time of scientific and technological revolution. The innovations and rapid growth in many areas of technology have cast doubt upon words such as ignorance and impossibility. This revolution also instigated new and/or radical ideas in the world of academia. The growth of post-modernism and its adherers in historical circles have caused quite a stir in dealing with the validity of many historical documents. Critical analysis of the subject of modernism and post-modernism can be simplified in one statement: What is our understanding of certainty? The modern critical analysis form is an ideal philosophy of industrialism, an ideology that adopts the correspondence theory. Facts are unbiased descriptions of past events that assist one in gaining knowledge. Since facts have consequences, modernists believe facts are not debatable. The core of modern critical analysis relies on facts to move towards a higher level of understanding (Truth). The push for facts to achieve a higher level of knowledge teaches and supports the value of HISTORY (history in the upper-case). Historical analysis in the modern form describes history as it is made by the use of facts. The common goal for modern historians is to find HISTORY, truth, and moral rights by methodically deducing facts and past events. By such ways, the truthful understanding of the past makes history useful for us in the present. In post-modern critical analysis, its philosophy lies in the critiquing the false in modernism. Truth/fact is merely a socially constructed ideal dependent on the context in which it is used [connotative meanings]. Post-modernists debunk the importance of fact due to limited personal perspectives. Since each person could have numerous perspectives on issues, the shear number would constitute the many facts once could have. Opposed to the modernist philosophy reflecting Wes...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Take Home Final Exam Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Take Home Final Exam - Case Study Example Conversely, â€Å"Public Law 94-192† mandated providing opportunities to the students having disabilities in participating in varied programs of school athletic. Finally, â€Å"Amateur Sports Act of 1978† emphasized introducing facilities along with programs for meeting the needs of the athletes having disabilities. In relation to the above context, while renovating a facility such as Morey Courts, certain specific concerned areas need to be considered by a planning committee. One of such areas would be creating a barrier less place. This will support in making better movement of the people within the area in a safer manner and also prevent from chances of falls as well as physical injuries. The other concerned area will be constructing toilets as well as other amenities in adherence with the respective special needs of the individuals who would visit the facility after being renovated. Apart from these, a planning committee should also consider introducing quality programs as well as facilities that would meet the needs of the disabled athletes and support them with addressing their practicing needs. Moreover, using flanks along with other facilities so that the movements within the facility centre do not get restricted will be the other specific concerned area for a planning committee to cons ider for renovation of a facility. Finally, a planning committee may prepare certain priority lists that would help in renovating the facility as per the desired standards, resulting into attracting the individuals to visit the facility periodically. Soft costs in the context of planning a new facility refer to such costs that are not directly engaged with the same. These generally involve the expenses that are incurred with the payments made in terms of fees and financing other needs. On a further note, soft costs comprise a huge portion of construction costs that are traditionally regarded as non-seen items. Moreover, these sports of costs are duly considered as the initial